Surgical methods are used as the first choice in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In people who are genetically predisposed to some types of cancer, conservative surgery is performed if high risk is determined as a result of the tests.
The surgeon may also remove several lymph nodes to determine if the cancer has spread. In cases of breast cancer, the entire breast tissue can be removed, and only the part containing the cancerous tissue and the surrounding tissue can be removed.
In cases of lung cancer, too, physicians may remove part of the lung (lobectomy) or an entire lung (pneumonectomy).
Which techniques are used in cancer surgery?
There is more than one surgical method in the treatment of cancer diseases, and these methods are being developed day by day. Among the commonly used methods in cancer surgery, apart from classical surgery, are the following:
Without the need for large surgical incisions in the body, instruments with a camera at the end and operating instruments are inserted through small incisions to view the operated area. Since the image of the operated area is also viewed on the screen, the risk of error is minimized.
Since large incisions are not made as in classical surgery, patients can recover in a shorter time. Laparoscopic surgery is used for cancer diagnosis, staging, treatment and alleviation of symptoms.
In robotic surgery, the surgeon uses special robotic instruments to describe how the robot must maneuver with surgical instruments to perform the operation, by watching a screen that reflects a three-dimensional view of the operating field. Robotic surgery not only helps the surgeon perform operations in hard-to-reach areas, but also contributes to shortening the healing process.
Laser surgery, which is applied in the treatment of many types of cancer, is applied by using high-intensity beams to shrink or vaporize cancer cells.
It is applied to remove cancerous tissues in sensitive areas of the skin and areas close to the eyes and to evaluate the depth of the cancer. In this method, cancerous tissues are removed layer by layer with the help of a scalpel, and each layer is examined under a microscope until it is ensured that abnormal cells are not completely left.
It is applied to the cancerous tissue using a very cold material such as a liquid nitrogen spray or a cold probe. For example, cancer cells in the cervix or cells that tend to form cancer can be frozen and destroyed with this method.
Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA)
Cancerous cells can be removed by applying a high frequency electrical current. It is mostly used on the skin and lips.